Kidney stone gallery

We’ve gathered a collection of kidney stone pictures in this photo gallery. The stones include small passed stones up to large staghorn stones. Stone composition (or type) is indicated when available.

Photo of kidney stone fragments

3 stone fragments that were removed during percutaneous surgery.

Photo of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate kidney stone

A 7 mm stone successfully passed by a patient. Comprised of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate.

Photo of calcium oxalate kidney stone fragments

Fragments of an orginally 1.1 cm stone treated with laser lithotripsy and removed during ureteroscopy. Comprised of calcium oxalate.

Photo of kidney stones removed percutaneously

A 1.4 cm and a 5 mm stone removed percutaneously from a kidney.

Photo of carbonate apatite kidney stones

Collection of carbonate apatite stones removed percutaneously from a kidney.

Photo of uric acid kidney stones

2mm and 4mm uric acid stones removed with ureteroscopy.

multiple kidney stones







Multiple large smooth kidney stones removed percutaneously from a single kidney. Largest stone measures 1.2 cm in size. Analysis demonstrated 70% calcium oxalate monohydrate and 30% calcium phosphate.








Multiple small kidney stones with the appearance of bird seed. Removed with ureteroscopy from a single kidney. Largest stone measured 4mm in size. Analysis demonstrated 85% calcium oxalate monohydrate and 15% calcium phosphate.

Photo of large bladder stones

File photo of large bladder stones removed by open incision. These have a “jackstone” appearance.

Photo of staghorn kidney stone

File photo of a large “staghorn” kidney stone removed intact by open surgery. The various parts of this stone fill up an entire kidney’s central collecting system, giving it a characteristic shape appearing similar to a deer’s antlers. Stones this size are not commonly seen intact anymore as most are now treated percutaneously and broken up before being removed.

Photo of staghorn kidney stone

File photo of another large “staghorn” stone removed by open surgery.

156 Responses to Kidney stone gallery

  1. Arnold says:

    Hi all, this is my first episode and that pain is formidable. It came on fradually to severe and a trip to ER. FOUND I HAD A 3.5 SIZED stone. Simialr pain meds and I do take HB meds. The pain move then went away with a return of strong urine flow. This morning I was afraid it would hurt coming out but it did not. It just shot out, with a brief feeling of a clog gretting unstuck.

  2. Teresa says:

    Going to the hospital in the morning to get a stent. I have a 1.6cm stone in my right kidney and some kind of cyst in my left one. Extremely rare congenital kidney disease I came within a hair’s breadth of dying from. My doctor said to go on a high calcitrate / low protein diet. Of ALL of the foods you should avoid for kidney stones.. rhubarb is the #1. Not many people eat it, but if you do.. stop, right now. Also, any sort of berry is going to increase your chances. Black tea is bad, but coffee is okay. The goal is to get oxalates to bind to calcium to be removed from the kidney, preventing the stone. Look up low oxalate foods and combine them with some sort of calcium intake. Depending on how it goes tomorrow, I would like to come back off and on to update my progress and offer whatever information I come across.

  3. Kim Hales says:

    This is my 2nd kidney stone so I’m new to these but was told that my headache/ blood pressure medicine causes these. It’s caused topomax. They upped my dose. Helps one thing but causes me this… :-(

  4. Namiiro judith says:

    I have a kidney stone Small in size but i hv to much pain da doctors try to advise mi to take alot of water ad i follow their instruction but still fill alot of pain do i need opération or i wait until i pass it?

  5. Kristy says:

    Ive had my stone for abt a year now itwas 3mm then nit sure what it is now but in ait if pain what should i di

  6. steve says:

    I just passed my a moment ago. I woke up 5 days ago with the most unbearable pain I’ve EVER experienced. It scared me it was so bad…and so sudden. I didn’t know what was going on. So that day I went to a primary care doc who gave said I had blood in urine (not visible) and he gave me toradol (a very potent anti-imflammatory) which can be taken for a max of 5 days and hydrocodone. The hydrocodon didn’t touch this pain nor did it help in the least. I went to emergency room that night and they gave me percocet and said bloodwork came out fine to wait and see the urologist. As soon as I got home from the urologist I passed it. I thought it would hurt coming out but it didn’t. It just kid of “shot out” -it surprised me!
    my symptoms were awful the first day with pain coming and going. I would get a max of one hour relief. One day I didn’t have pain at all then the next day pain was less and I had more time between “pain attacks”-so things seemed to be improving. Then the pains came back-you get the picture. I used the strainer and everything I caught until today was only the size of a grain of sand but this one is like a small rock-I’m guessing 5mm. During all this I drank 10-15 glasses of water a day and 3 times a day I drank 3 tablespoons of apple vinegar “with mothers” (which I believe means the pulp of apple). I’ve read this helps break up the stone. When I felt good enough I also jumped on a trampoline :) in hoping it would help move it down. I’m male 40yo and the last time I had kidney stones was when I was around 23yo. Just before I passed the stone I noticed the pain was a shooting pain that went from my kidney to around my front lower abdomen toward the groin area. If you get this kind of pain you may be close to passing your stone as it moves down.

  7. BARBARA says:


  8. Nate says:

    Generally I have found that Magnesium works really well. Probably because I have calcium stones so this may depend on your type. About 1.5 hrs after taking 1000 mg OF A GOOD QUALITY PAY MORE FOR IT AT GOOD STORE (not walmart) Magnesium pain goes away, probably to reduce stones do that every 2 or 4 hours for a day or two being VERY CONSISTENT. You are “melting” the sharp points off of the stone and reducing it’s size if Magnesium is there long enough. This is my experience and I have passed stones with no pain (because they are small and not sharp on edges) and regular taking of Magnesium like 250 to 500 mg a day keeps them away, but sodas seem to leach Mag out of your system so AVOID THEM and any extra calcium, yea cake every once and a while is OK but take some extra Mag! Hope this helps others.

    • Bobbo says:

      Magnesium citrate helps prevent recurrences — presumably because it competes with the calcium. However, it does not “melt” off sharp points, cause pain, relieve pain or making passing a stone any less painful. What’s this point about sodas leaching out Mg? The whole point of taking Magnesium Citrate is to add Magnesium and Citrate to the urine. So why the concern about leaching?

      • Nate says:

        Magnesium Oxide is what works ! Yes, it melts off the sharp points and helps you pass it or melt it over time. The pain comes from the sharp points. This works for me. The 1000 mg you only do for a few days while you have this and then I cut back in steps (waiting to see if pain comes back or I pass it) to 500 mg a day to maintain. Chemicals in dark sodas is what leaches Mag out, read the label. Just drink distilled water H2O during this, soda is bad for you anyway. Use some common sense, something is causing this problem!. Watch out for urinary tract infections, comes with this sometimes, even later on, you get pain at bladder area along with kidney, I take 4000 mg garlic right away just like antibiotic every 6 hrs, urine may be cloudy and clears up quick, if infection gone, next day stop garlic, google this stuff.

  9. Ramiro gonzalez says:

    hi all i have stones also im going to get the out tomorrow but my problem is that this is my 7th time i am going to get this done as a get them atlest 5 times a year and doctor and i cant fund out what is casing this. I have very high Calcium level and Urine citrate is low and urine uric acid level is high as well how can i control this i have try every thing

    • Jo Johnson says:

      Ask your doctor about hyperparathyroidism. If your blood calcium is high, you could have a small tumor on one or more of your parathyroid glands causing the elevated calcium leading to the large amount of stones. It takes a small laser surgery on your throat to fix, but normally after the tumor is gone ( not a cancerous tumor by the way ) the stones stop. Good luck!

    • khan says:

      use “Kalkurenal” its a German medicine, i am not sure if its available in your country but its the best. its an homeopathic. Plus it has no side effects, and stop using too much rice and tomato in your diet.

  10. Pain says:

    Hey everyone.. I am a 22 year old female..
    Just got out of hospital with my first kidney stone obstruction.. Swolen kidney, very sick,. Kidney drain was placed and now I have a stent and awaiting surgery for removal… The doctors say it’s not going to pass on it’s own however, there are many people on here passing bigger ones!!! :/

    Are there any kidney stoners out there my age and gender?? My doctors think I am some sort of rare case due to my age and gender.. But I am sure there would be many people out there in the same category as I!

    • Gabby says:

      No you are not the only one. I am a 20 year old female who has had a great deal of kidney stone problems. I actually had problems with kidney stones and mono at the same time which is a whole other story. No you are not a rare case I can assure you. Actually two of my friends who are female have also had kidney stones and are around my age.

      i hope everything goes well for you and that the surgery went well! And if it makes you feel any better you are not alone in your age and gender for kidney stones! I also like how you call us kidney stoners haha

    • Rachael Smith says:

      Hi I just got discharged from hospital yesterday evening. I’m 25 and female
      The consultant also told me it was very rare for someone my age and gender to get kidney stones. I also couldn’t pass the stones despite medications and being admitted into hospital for a week. I have had the stones removed and have a stent inserted between kidney and bladder. I had my operation on Thursday and already notice a difference. Yes I am still in a bit of pain and uncomfortable but nothing compared to before the operation. I was in absolute agony and doctors where giving me intravenous morphine, oramorph, codeine, nephapam, paracetamol, and tamsilosin (unsure if spelt right) – dispite all these I was still in agony! And getting worse!
      Thankfully they operated and made my pain bearable! I’m currently staying at my mam and dad’s house so I’m not alone in my flat. I’m still passing lots of blood in urine and have aching pains in kidney and lower abdomen. But doctors say this should pass in upto 3 weeks. Just have lots of medications to take regularly and should be back at the kidney clinic outpatients in a few weeks for a check up then have stunt removed in 2 to 3 months time. I’m slowly getting better. But I know it will take time.
      Hope you also got sorted out. And are feeling better :-)
      Rachael x

    • Jo Johnson says:

      Hi, I hate to hear how much trouble you are having with your first stone. Kidney stones suck. Period. As to your question about age/ gender… Well, yeah, younger women aren’t the “norm” for kidney stones, but you’re not alone. I started getting kidney stones when I was 20. Here I sit 20 years later still battling stones. I’ve had well over 500 stones at this point and even had to have my right ureter completely replaced with a piece of my small intestine. Like I said, stones suck! I wish you well in getting through this first stone. Follow all your doctors recommendations for lowering your chances of recurring stones. Mine are genetic so nothing I do keeps me from getting them.

    • Erin says:

      I’m 31 yes old, I’ve been getting stones since I was pregnant w my first child at 19 yes old! I’ve had laser surgery when I couldn’t pass them and had blockages… I’ve passed maybe close to 100 stones on my own…most w/out pain medication! I’ve had lithotripsy a half dozen tomes….the Dr are stumped w me…I guzzle water I’ve stayed away from high protein and oxalate foods…I now am doing the lithotripsy every 6-10 months alternatively kidneys…I currently have a combined 9mm in left and 6mm in right kidney…I passed a good size stone on my own on Tuesday.. A lot of pain and very nauseous/vomiting from pain. Next appointment w Surgeon is in two wks…next lithotripsy will most likely be in October. Good luck everyone… I’ve been living this life and it can be very painful and frustrating….

  11. Salam says:

    I am from India
    I too have a 10mm stone in left kidney upper ureter I am lot suffering about this
    I consult lots of doctors, but no results
    I spend lot of money 40to50000 on this, and I don’t have much,
    Please somebody help with your valuable experience to get cure me

  12. faye says:

    I had surgery 7years ago, and i am still having problems. i am very afraid. My pain is coming and going. Like it was seven years ago. I had gotten very sick. I had fever and I could not stop vomiting. I was told if I would not have made to the hospital when I did. I would have died. I was told mine have thrones on them. What can I do? Because I feel them coming back. This is the first time I have been on this site. I cant post my comment

  13. faye says:

    I had surgery 7years ago, and i am still having problems. i am very afraid. My pain is coming and going. Like it was seven years ago. I had gotten very sick. I had fever and I could not stop vomiting. I was told if I would not have made to the hospital when I did. I would have died. I was told mine have thrones on them. What can I do? Because I feel them coming back

  14. Pradeep Sundar says:

    Solution for kidney stones :

    Good Day to all. My mom has it and we just identified it in the lab two weeks back. When i keep searching in internet for what people are doing to cure it, its scary. Sounds like most of us don’t understand how our body system works. If a dust goes thru the nose, its a particle which our body dont need to work properly. so we sneeze immediately. Our system knows how to send things out. When alot of CO2 is in, we yawn to send all out. our system knows that u need more oxygen. When your body is heat, we sweat to maintain the body temperature… ( ex: sweat while we run n rest).. So the basis is, Our body is always acting against the foreign particle inside the body and it dont allow things to enter.

    Now the only way things enter is thru our “mouth”. ( For clean habit persons :p ) . Food and water intakes , The one and only reason for a HEALTHY person to fall sick. Alot of people dont even chew properly, they chew for twice or thrice and swallow the food as if we have another 32 teeth inside our digestive system. We all need to know ” How to Eat”. I am not joking. 99% of people who read this may laugh. But if atleast one person undestands it, I’m Happy.

    To stop getting more deposits of stones in kidney, gall bladder…. ( these stones are not the stone/sand which we swallow or eat mixed with rice or something. It is caused by our improper food management.) We shud Eat properly…

    How to eat properly :
    1. Eat after u feel hungry . We eat for our body & not for the clock in the wall to eat ON TIME.
    2. Eat a minimum quantity of food. ( if u watch ur saliva in mouth carefully… ur tongue will tell u the food is enough. So lets not watch tv or chat or do something else while we eat)
    3. know which food is right for u. Our body is made of 5 elements. Each body type has food associated with it. We should know how to utilize it.(Water, air, Fire, earth n space or ether) Google if you want to know more how it relates with us. As it is seperate topic .

    Way of Eating :
    1. drink water 30 mins before or after intake of food. lets not dilute the acid secreted to digest food.
    2. After u put the food into mouth, Close ur mouth, Chew well with ur teeth. Feel the food is juicy inside ( as long as it is grinded well) Then its time to swallow. NEVER keep ur mouth open while chewing.

    Now the above ways of eating stops from getting sick further…. and its most important to practice before going into cure stones.

    Now the solution : Banana Stem, Ever heard about it?. Its white in colour once u peeled off the skin of the stem. Take a long stem ( as long as 15-20 cms) crush it with little water.
    Drink the juice ( 10 ml concentrated or 1 glass diluted with water) in empty stomach, twice a day. Can increase even thrice a day too.

    Those who has pains , Add a cardamom seed ( say two pinch of powder … yes in powder form ) mix with the juice and drink it.

    The banana stem juice helps to remove the kidney stones. Drink plenty of water the whole day. (3.5 to 4 litres)

    Dont buy packed juices or dont store it in fridge to drink for next time. If u prepare it, try to consume it in 3 hrs. Its useless to drink after that.

    Banana stem is Diuretic ( urine accumulate faster and fills bladder) and Lithotriptic ( crush stones into smaller parts)

    Well, Lets use our brain… Now banana stem does it work. Crush the stone and helps to bring it thru urine. But if we dont drink plenty of water… how it gonna work out?. That’s right. Drink Plentyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy of water and Banana stem juice.. Rest the body will take care. ( The right food on right time.. now its banana stem)

    Please ignore soda, fatty foods, more salt in food, cold beverages. Water is really a pure water. lets not substitute with Cola.

    PS : I am not a doctor :P . If you need proof, try it on ur own and get cured. If u still want to see people who got cured. have a trip to South India.

    Those who have bigger stones and with too much pain, pls check with ur doctor. you can follow these. But its not of instant help anyway. It takes sometimes 48 days to expel the stones.

    I am interested in a post where a person says there is a traditional way to cure… Please share in the mains, so its beneficial for all our young and old -brothers, sisters and friends across the world.

  15. Viktoria says:

    My mom just had surgery on Monday for her stag horn and kidney stones. She was in so much pain! About a month ago she was very sick with no relief, she thought it was the flu but I finally got her to the ER and if we had waited another day she may not of made it! Her kidneys were inflamed with infection as well as her bladder with infection
    :’( she was in ICU for 2 days and the hospital a week! I’m so glad that she made it thru this! She is a fighter and is feeling a lot better!!

  16. Rick Voyles says:

    I have been passing stones for about 10 years. I may have had some when I was younger, but am not sure. I have over 30 in a film can where I keep them. I estimate this to be about one third of them because so many got away. I have had lithotripsy twice and the basket surgery once. My stones are usually small now. (1/2-1mm) I credit this to drinking tea made from dried corn silk. I drink it every day. I stopped once and the larger stones started again. I buy it in bulk. I use a stainless steel mesh ball and steep it in hot water. I tried eliminating coffee and tea. It made no difference. For what ever reason lately the stones are much darker in color. I have had a variety of different looking stones and my urologist has not offered much help other than to prescribe Enablex and Tamsulosin (flowmax) to help pass them. It does help, but affects my short term memory so bad I can barely function at work. I am on my second urologist, as the first one retired. The first one never questioned me if I told him I had a stone and needed help. He said I knew more about this than he did. The second urologist hasn’t quite figured this out yet.

    • Kalina says:

      Rick, I understand your pain I have had calcium phosphate kidney stones since 2004 to the present and I have had two ureterscopic lithotripsy and three ESWL at one time I had 23 stones and the largest being 8.2mm four hours under anesthesia on each kidney. I have done research and diurectics like coffee and tea are bad because you don’t secrete the waste products and the water that you have in your urinary system when you urinate.mmagrnisum phosphate and coral,calcium, a lowly altar
      -low sodium diet helps and also fresh lemon juice wheather it’s a lemon you eat or in your waters. Check your urine output with a 24 hour urine specimen and see if the acidity level in below 7-6.0 because that means you are retaining to much acid and not enoug alkaline in your body. See about drinking green food and probiotics because that should help keep the, small and also prevent more stones. My stones have not got any larger and I don’t make as many as I used to. I hope this helps you a d please get better.

    • mama of a kidney stone former says:

      My son is almost 10 years old and has been passing kidney stones since he was 2. Unfortunately he was not CONFIRMED with a kidney stone until a yr ago when we came across the right er dr at tge right time. We went through years of not knowing what and why he was having the pain and blood in his urine. Theber dr referred hin to a urologist who then referred him to a nephrologist. He has been kidney stone and symptom free since sept 2013. We worked with nephrology and started the litholink program which is a wonderful tool if you can talk to your dr about it. They did an ivp on my son and told me my sons urinary system had been through years of abuse. Urology is good for when you HAVE a stone but nephrology works to PREVENT a stone. I strongly suggest talking to your pcp and trying to find a nephrologist. It helped my son enormously and me as a mom has helped me to identify and work to prevent the stones. Best of luck

  17. Deepak Sapkota says:

    what is the best medicine to clear the kidney multiple stone?

    • Kalina says:

      Flomax is a basic medication that is used for enlarged prostates and to help pass kidney stones. Just stay away from any drinks that are considered diuretics and Try alkaline based diet it’s more homeopathic but it does help with the stones remaining small and also they are not made in the kidney as much. If you have any other questions let me know I am in the medical field but I have done research on my own since 2004 bc I suffer from bilateral nephrolithasis and have had two ureterscopic laser lithotripsy and three ESWL surgeries. I now have 14 stones but they are small. And I have been passing them. Hope you get better soon. Take care

      • Mae says:

        Im 27,3 yrs ago il been in operation in kidney stone,,now it return again,1.6cm the doc said nid an operation again,,is thier any i can able to take to cure my kidney stone for preventing an operation again..

  18. Deepak Sapkota says:

    I am also suffering from kidney stone (Multiple renal stones in both kidney ago 7 year mix 7/8 mm in both ) what should I do? What Should We Avoid food ? Can it totally clear?

  19. Ravi says:

    I am also suffering from kidney stone(near about 7.8mm)what should I do???

    • V.Maran says:

      mr.ravi may i know whr u frm?
      if u frm malaysia i can help u bcs im also suffering frm kidney stone but now im ok.
      lady frm sungai petani kedah help me take out (traditional way) kidney stone without no pain at all n some more the charges very low .cost about malaysian ringgit 50 only.

  20. Kelly says:

    I have an 18mm stone that they want to take out in a few weeks. It’s causing over active bladder symptoms. I’m a little nervous.

    • cathy head says:

      I too have an 18mm kidney stone in right kidney and its still growing. What treatment did you have. 18mm is scary.

  21. Mani says:

    I have a kidney stone of 14-15mm what should i do??

  22. mansi says:

    My husband is 7 mm Stone
    What is the cure?
    What Should We Avoid food ?

    • Dilana says:

      I too have severe stones and cysts from calcified stones. My doctor put me on a HIGH ACID diet. Meaning, heavy on the orange juice, lemonade, spaghetti, etc and this acid helps break down the stones making it easier to pass.

      • Ed Lewis says:

        She is Absolutely right. I suffer (understatement) for years of having stones, after losing count, plus 20 stones (Some large and some small) I found that this is the only impact full way of treating my type of stone. Some of mine were surgically removed, some I just waited while curled up in a ball to die. Every doctor & voodoo doctor had their own ideas but truly what I have found is that substituting lemon aid for soda or milk has dramatically reduced my stone output from 1 every 6 months to about 1 every 2-3 years. This may not sound scientific, or even a dramatic reduction, but pain is pain and I know I’d much rather deal with a stone every 2-3 years than every 6 months. Give it a try, but don’t give up, it’s not snake juice and it doesn’t fix it over night but within a year, if your a stone producer, it makes a difference!

  23. Cathy says:

    Sorry George. Any better now?

  24. Tracy says:

    That is horrible! !! My uncle takes a prescription medicine called Potassium Citrate to prevent him from getting kidney stones. He was having kidney stones a lot before the medicine. Has your doctor not prescribed that for you?? If not, ask Dr to prescribe it!!!

    • Ed Lewis says:

      It depends on the individual and what the stone is made of, in my case there really no medicine given my genetic make up and type of stone. It’s can really only be treated with died. Ie… Reduced milk products and increase in high acid like lemon aid (helps to dissolve current stones that haven’t dropped yet and from creating in the first place.

    • aafaff says:

      You can buy potassium citrate tabs 99 mg. size much cheaper over the counter in any drug store without a prescription.

  25. George Ruh says:

    I have passed over 100 Kidney stones and recently, about one every two days since I have been living in Florida and being more active and being exposed to the sun. In the past-Have had stent, lithotripsy, basket surgery in tube from kidney to bladder, and out and out surgery with 9 inch scar to document. I wish I knew how to stop forming them. I feel fortunate that the last 35 or so even though painful at times, have not obstructed anything. I would welcome any relief. Sleeping is difficult as each time I feel a twinge in kidney or bladder area, I get up, drink some water and hope to pass a stone-recently, (8) passed in last two weeks. Not fun–call me “Rocky.”

    • chas says:

      Have you heard of: 2tlbs Bragg Organic Apple Cider Vinegar + 2oz fresh squeezed lemon juice + 4 – 6oz filtered cold water + 1-2 tlbs organic honey organic agave nectar, 4 times daily 4hrs apart for 2wks. Then 3 times daily
      for 2wks. Then twice daily for 2wks. Then as a prevention: cut back to 1tbl
      of Bragg Organic Apple Cider Vinegar in same as above twice daily.
      Also read article “Can Lemon Juice Dissolve Kidney Stone – Beth Greenwood October 21, 2013 (

    • Tracy says:

      That is horrible! !! My uncle takes a prescription medicine called Potassium Citrate to prevent him from getting kidney stones. He was having kidney stones a lot before the medicine. Has your doctor not prescribed that for you?? If not, ask Dr to prescribe it!!!

    • Athena says:

      Chanca Piedra

    • John says:

      Have you tried Theralith XR? I had 10 stones in less than 2 years prior to starting Theralith XR since taking it I have had 2 stones in 2 years.

    • Michael says:

      get a clacium, d3 and PTH blood test… that will tell you if you are making stones because of a problem with your parathyroid, not thyroid but parathyroid.

    • Ed Lewis says:

      I feel for you, I thought I had it bad when I lost count after 20 plus. I also had the same type of procedures to find relief. But if you haven’t tried or committed to the acid diet, drink nothing but water, and stay away from milk products (like milk, cheeses, etc…) try it. It may not stop them completely, but for my it, without a doubt, it reduced the number from 1-2 ever 6 months to 1-2 every 2-3 years, this is without exaduration.

    • Mark says:

      George, I’ve been passing kidney stones since 2000. This past year has been the worst. I passed without surgery a stone the size of the head on a nickle.
      Last year I also found out that I have sarcoidosis. It a disease that produces to much calcium. Then the calcium builds up in my kidneys. I work outside and what ive read the sun will activate my sarcoidosis. Maybe you should check for that.

    • william shirley says:

      If it’s from ocsalic acid, never eat any raw spinach.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>